NFHS releases recommendations for high school athletics and activities – Columbia Star

NFHS releases recommendations for high school athletics and activities  Columbia Star

The COVID-19 pandemic presents state high school associations with a myriad of challenges. The NFHS Sports Medicine Advisory Committee (SMAC) offers this document as guidance on how state associations can consider approaching the many components of “opening up” high school athletics and activities across the United States.

The NFHS SMAC believes it is essential to the physical and mental well-being of high school students across the nation to return to physical activity and athletic competition. The NFHS SMAC recognizes that it is likely that ALL students will not be able to return to – and sustain – athletic activity at the same time in all schools, regions and states. There will also likely be variation in what sports and activities are allowed to be played and held. While we would typically have reservations regarding such inequities, the NFHS SMAC endorses the idea of returning students to school-based athletics and activities in any and all situations where it can be done safely.

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Since NFHS member state associations are a well-respected voice for health and safety issues, the NFHS SMAC strongly urges that these organizations engage with state and local health departments to develop policy regarding coordinated approaches for return to activity for high school, club and youth sports.

The recommendations presented in this document are intended as ideas for state associations to consider with their respective SMACs and other stakeholders in designing return-to-activity guidelines that will be in accordance with state or local restrictions. Please note that the phases of “opening up” outlined below are based upon the White House document released in April 2020. Consult your state and local health departments to review if they are using a similar approach, or how the phases in this document correspond to your state or local governments nomenclature.

Preliminary Questions for State Associations:

Some state associations may wish to consider the following four questions before further deliberation on this document:

1. Will your state association conduct an athletics/activities regular season or championship if public schools statewide are closed to in-person learning (apart from regularly scheduled school breaks)?

2. Will your state association conduct an athletics/activities regular season or championship if schools are closed only in COVID-19 “hotspots” in your state? (excluding participants from schools that are closed)?

3. Will your state association conduct an athletics/activities regular season in sports deemed “lower-risk” for COVID-19 transmission while cancelling athletics/activities considered “higher-risk?”

4. Are there recommendations unique to your state – or regions of your state – that you need to take into consideration when developing return-to-activity guidelines?

Points of Emphasis:

1. Decreasing potential exposure to respiratory droplets is the guiding principle behind social distancing and the use of face coverings. It is also the basis of the stratification of risk by sport presented later on in this document. The use of cloth face coverings is meant to decrease the spread of respiratory droplets. As state and local COVID-19 prevalence decreases, the need for strict social distancing and the use of face coverings will lessen. Look to guidance from your state and local health departments.

a. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is additionally “advising the use of simple cloth face coverings to slow the spread of the virus and help people who may have the virus and do not know it from transmitting it to others.” (“Recommendation                 Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community-Based Transmission”)

b. Recognizing the benefits and potential drawbacks of the use of cloth face coverings during conditioning and physical activity, the NFHS SMAC recommends the following:

i. State, local or school district guidelines for cloth face coverings should be strictly followed.

ii. Cloth face coverings should be considered acceptable. There is no need to require or recommend “medical grade” masks for athletic activity.

iii. Any student who prefers to wear a cloth face covering during a contest should be allowed to do so.

iv. In the absence of guidelines to the contrary, we recommend that cloth face coverings be worn by students during Phases 1 and 2 as outlined below. Exceptions are swimming, distance running or other high intensity aerobic activity. Cloth face coverings may                        continue to be used during Phase 3 when not engaging in vigorous activity, such as sitting on the bench during contests, in the locker room and in the athletic training room.

v. Plastic shields covering the entire face (or attached to a helmet) shall not be allowed during contests. Their use during practices increases the risk of unintended injury to the person wearing the shield or teammates.

vi. Coaches, officials and other contest personnel may wear cloth face coverings at all times during Phases 1 through 3. (Artificial noisemakers such as an air horn or a timer system with an alarm can be used to signal in place of a traditional whistle.)

2. Testing regimens, specific guidelines regarding mass gatherings, and response to a student or team member testing positive for COVID-19 (including contact tracing) are all currently under review, and guidance will come from CDC and state and local health departments. Limited testing availability, lack of resources for contact tracing, and expanding knowledge of the characteristics of COVID-19 transmission could all result in significant changes to the recommendations below. The NFHS SMAC and state association SMACs expect to disseminate this information as it becomes available.

3. Due to the near certainty of recurrent outbreaks this coming fall and winter in some locales, state associations must be prepared for periodic school closures and the possibility of some teams having to isolate for two to three weeks while in-season. Development of policies is recommended regarding practice and/or competition during temporary school closures, the cancellation of contests during the regular season, and parameters for the cancellation or premature ending to post-season events/competitions.

4. With the uncertainty of which phase will be attained at the beginning of a sports season or maintained during a season, scheduling contests that require less travel when possible should be considered. Such scheduling will reduce time spent in buses or vans. It will also potentially decrease the need for rescheduling contests as “opening up” may occur regionally. If opponents at the time of a contest are subject to different restrictions, re-scheduling that contest for a later date may be problematic.

5. The principles presented in this guidance document can be applied to practices, rehearsals, and events for the performing arts with the exception of singing and the playing of wind instruments. The extent of the spread of respiratory droplets during these activities is currently under investigation and further guidance will issued as it becomes available.

6. “Vulnerable individuals” are defined by CDC as people age 65 years and older and others with serious underlying health conditions, including high blood pressure, chronic lung disease, diabetes, obesity, asthma, and those whose immune systems are compromised such as by chemotherapy for cancer and other conditions requiring such therapy.

7. Until a cure, vaccine or very effective treatment is readily available, or so-called “herd immunity” is confidently reached, social distancing and other preventive measures such as face covering will be a “new normal” if workouts, practices and contests are to continue.

Areas to Address:

1. Administrative

       A. Preparticipation Physical Evaluation

             Due to concerns regarding access to primary care providers during the late spring and early summer, the NFHS SMAC released a position statement giving guidance to state associations concerning timing of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation (see                              Appendix I). Options vary from a one-year extension to keeping current requirements. State associations and their SMACs can also consider interim history updates by having students complete a form or having a telemedicine visit with their primary care                          provider. 4

       B. Mandatory Education

             The COVID-19 pandemic has caused the cancellation of essentially all “in person” educational events. It is recommended that online education courses take the place of “hands on” or in-person training, whenever possible. This includes accepting online training              courses for AED/CPR and First Aid for the 2020-21 academic year.

       C. Equipment Reconditioning

             The National Athletic Equipment Reconditioners Association (NAERA) has advised the NFHS that significant equipment reconditioning capacity is currently operational. If schools have not sent out equipment for reconditioning, they should be directed to do so              immediately. If schools currently have equipment being reconditioned, a school official should contact the reconditioning company to make specific delivery arrangements if their school is currently closed.

       D. Conduct of Conditioning and Practice Sessions

             Phases are in accordance with guidelines published by the White House and CDC available at www.whitehouse.gov/openingamerica/. Please consult with your local or state health department regarding their plan for “opening up” your state. Not all                        states are using the same criteria, and what is allowable during specific phases will vary from state to state, or even within a state. Use the following as a resource in designing a plan for your state. Please note that there will be “gating” criteria to establish Phase 1              and the further criteria must be met to advance from one phase to the next. These criteria will be determined by state and/or local governments and must be strictly followed.

Phase 1

Pre- workout Screening:

  • All coaches and students should be screened for signs/symptoms of COVID-19 prior to a workout. Screening includes a temperature check.
  • Responses to screening questions for each person should be recorded and stored so that there is a record of everyone present in case a student develops COVID-19 (see Appendix II for sample Monitoring Form).
  • Any person with positive symptoms reported should not be allowed to take part in workouts and should contact his or her primary care provider or other appropriate health-care professional.
  • Vulnerable individuals should not oversee or participate in any workouts during Phase 1.

Limitations on Gatherings:

  • No gathering of more than 10 people at a time (inside or outside).
  • Locker rooms should not be utilized during Phase 1. Students should report to workouts in proper gear and immediately return home to shower at end of the workout.
  • Workouts should be conducted in “pods” of students with the same 5-10 students always working out together. Smaller pods can be utilized for weight training. This ensures more limited exposure if someone develops an infection.
  • There must be a minimum distance of 6 feet between each individual at all times. If this is not possible indoors, then the maximum number of individuals in the room must be decreased until proper social distancing can occur.

Facilities Cleaning:

  • Adequate cleaning schedules should be created and implemented for all athletic facilities to mitigate any communicable diseases.
  • Prior to an individual or groups of individuals entering a facility, hard surfaces within that facility should be wiped down and sanitized (chairs, furniture in meeting rooms, locker rooms, weight room equipment, bathrooms, athletic training room tables, etc.).
  • Individuals should wash their hands for a minimum of 20 seconds with warm water and soap before touching any surfaces or participating in workouts.
  • Hand sanitizer should be plentiful and available to individuals as they transfer from place to place.
  • Weight equipment should be wiped down thoroughly before and after an individual’s use of equipment.
  • Appropriate clothing/shoes should be worn at all times in the weight room to minimize sweat from transmitting onto equipment/surfaces.
  • Any equipment such as weight benches, athletic pads, etc. having holes with exposed foam should be covered.
  • Students must be encouraged to shower and wash their workout clothing immediately upon returning to home.

Physical Activity and Athletic Equipment:

  • There should be no shared athletic equipment (towels, clothing, shoes, or sports specific equipment) between students.
  • Students should wear their own appropriate workout clothing (do not share clothing) individual clothing/towels should be washed and cleaned after every workout.
  • All athletic equipment, including balls, should be cleaned after each use and prior to the next workout.
  • Individual drills requiring the use of athletic equipment are permissible, but the equipment should be cleaned prior to use by the next individual.
  • Resistance training should be emphasized as body weight, sub-maximal lifts and use of resistance bands.
  • Free weight exercises that require a spotter cannot be conducted while honoring social distancing norms. Safety measures in all forms must be strictly enforced in the weight room.
  • Examples (including by limited to):

             o A basketball player can shoot with a ball(s), but a team should not practice/pass a single ball among the team where multiple players touch the same ball.

             o A football player should not participate in team drills with a single ball that will be handed off or passed to other teammates. Contact with other players is not allowed, and there should be no sharing of tackling dummies/donuts/sleds.

             o A volleyball player should not use a single ball that others touch or hit in any manner.

             o Softball and baseball players should not share gloves, bats, or throw a single ball that will be tossed among the team. A single player may hit in cages, throw batting practice (with netting as backstop, no catcher). Prior to another athlete using the same balls,                       they should be collected and cleaned individually.

o Wrestlers may skill and drill without touching a teammate.

             o Cheerleaders may not practice/perform partner stunts or building. (Chants, jumps, dances without contact are permissible.)

o Tennis players may do individual drills, wall volleys and serves.

             o Runners should maintain the recommended 6 feet of distancing between individuals

Hydration:

  • All students shall bring their own water bottle. Water bottles must not be shared.
  • Hydration stations (water cows, water trough, water fountains, etc.) should not be utilized.

Phase 2

Pre-Workout/Contest Screening:

  • All coaches and students should be screened for signs/symptoms of COVID-19 prior to a workout. Screening includes a temperature check.
  • Responses to screening questions for each person should be recorded and stored so that there is a record of everyone present in case a student develops COVID-19 (see Appendix II for sample Monitoring Form).
  • Any person with positive symptoms reported should not be allowed to take part in workouts and should contact his or her primary care provider or other appropriate health-care professional.
  • Vulnerable individuals should not oversee or participate in any workouts during Phase 2.

Limitations on Gatherings:

  • No gathering of more than 10 people at a time inside. Up to 50 individuals may gather outdoors for workouts.
  • If locker rooms or meeting rooms are used, there must be a minimum distance of 6 feet between each individual at all times.
  • Workouts should be conducted in “pods” of students with the same 5-10 students always working out together. Smaller pods can be utilized for weight training. This ensures more limited exposure if someone develops an infection.
  • There must be a minimum distance of 6 feet between each individual at all times. If this is not possible indoors, then the maximum number of individuals in the room must be decreased until proper social distancing can occur. Appropriate social distancing will need to be maintained on sidelines and benches during practices. Consider using tape or paint as a guide for students and coaches.

Facilities Cleaning:

  • Adequate cleaning schedules should be created and implemented for all athletic facilities to mitigate any communicable diseases.
  • Prior to an individual or groups of individuals entering a facility, hard surfaces within that facility should be wiped down and sanitized (chairs, furniture in meeting rooms, locker rooms, weight room equipment, bathrooms, athletic training room tables, etc.).
  • Individuals should wash their hands for a minimum of 20 seconds with warm water and soap before touching any surfaces or participating in workouts.
  • Hand sanitizer should be plentiful and available to individuals as they transfer from place to place.
  • Weight equipment should be wiped down thoroughly before and after an individual’s use of equipment.
  • Appropriate clothing/shoes should be worn at all times in the weight room to minimize sweat from transmitting onto equipment/surfaces.
  • Any equipment such as weight benches, athletic pads, etc. having holes with exposed foam should be covered.
  • Students must be encouraged to shower and wash their workout clothing immediately upon returning to home.

Physical Activity and Athletic Equipment:

  • Lower risk sports practices and competitions may resume (see Potential Infection Risk by Sport below).
  • Modified practices may begin for Moderate risk sports.
  • There should be no shared athletic towels, clothing or shoes between students.
  • Students should wear their own appropriate workout clothing (do not share clothing), and individual clothing/towels should be washed and cleaned after every workout.
  • All athletic equipment, including balls, should be cleaned intermittently during practices and contests.
  • Hand sanitizer should be plentiful at all contests and practices.
  • Athletic equipment such as bats, batting helmets and catchers gear should be cleaned between each use.
  • Maximum lifts should be limited and power cages should be used for squats and bench presses. Spotters should stand at each end of the bar.

Hydration:

  • All students shall bring their own water bottle. Water bottles must not be shared.
  • Hydration stations (water cows, water trough, water fountains, etc.) should not be utilized.

Phase 3

Pre- Workout/Contest Screening:

  • Any person who has had a fever or cold symptoms in the previous 24 hours should not be allowed to take part in workouts and should contact his or her primary care provider or other appropriate health-care professional.
  • A record should be kept of all individuals present.
  • Vulnerable individuals can resume public interactions, but should practice physical distancing, minimizing exposure to social settings where distancing may not be practical, unless precautionary measures are observed.

Limitations on Gatherings:

  • Gathering sizes of up to 50 individuals, indoors or outdoors.
  • When not directly participating in practices or contests, care should be taken to maintain a minimum distance of 3 to 6 feet between each individual. Consider using tape or paint as a guide for students and coaches.

Facilities Cleaning:

  • Adequate cleaning schedules should be created and implemented for all athletic facilities to mitigate any communicable diseases.
  • Prior to an individual or groups of individuals entering a facility, hard surfaces within that facility should be wiped down and sanitized (chairs, furniture in meeting rooms, locker rooms, weight room equipment, bathrooms, athletic training room tables, etc.).
  • Individuals should wash their hands for a minimum of 20 seconds with warm water and soap before touching any surfaces or participating in workouts.
  • Hand sanitizer should be plentiful and available to individuals as they transfer from place to place.
  • Weight equipment should be wiped down thoroughly before and after an individual’s use of equipment.
  • Appropriate clothing/shoes should be worn at all times in the weight room to minimize sweat from transmitting onto equipment/surfaces.
  • Any equipment such as weight benches, athletic pads, etc. having holes with exposed foam should be covered.
  • Students must be encouraged to shower and wash their workout clothing immediately upon returning to home.

Physical Activity and Athletic Equipment:

  • Moderate risk sports practices and competitions may begin.
  • There should be no shared athletic towels, clothing or shoes between students.
  • Students should wear their own appropriate workout clothing (do not share clothing), and individual clothing/towels should be washed and cleaned after every workout.
  • Hand sanitizer should be plentiful at all contests and practices.
  • Athletic equipment such as bats, batting helmets and catchers gear should be cleaned between each use. Other equipment, such as hockey helmets/pads, wrestling ear guards, football helmets/other pads, lacrosse helmets/pads/gloves/eyewear should be worn by only one individual and not shared.
  • Maximum lifts should be limited and power cages should be used for squats and bench presses. Spotters should stand at each end of the bar.
  • Modified* practices may begin for Higher risk sports:

             o *Continue pre-practice screening as in Phases 1 and 2. Shower immediately after practices/contests.

             o Re-assess epidemiology data and experiences in other states and other levels of competition to determine when Higher risk sports competition may resume.

Hydration:

  • All students shall bring their own water bottle. Water bottles must not be shared.
  • Hydration stations (water cows, water trough, water fountains, etc.) may be utilized but must be cleaned after every practice/contest.

       E. Contests

1. Potential Infection Risk by Sport (modified from United States Olympic and Paralympic Committee – Sports Medicine recommendations)

Higher Risk: Sports that involve close, sustained contact between participants, lack of significant protective barriers, and high probability that respiratory particles will be transmitted between participants.

Examples: Wrestling, football, boys lacrosse, competitive cheer, dance

Moderate Risk: Sports that involve close, sustained contact, but with protective equipment in place that may reduce the likelihood of respiratory particle transmission between participants OR intermittent close contact OR group sports OR sports that use equipment that can’t be cleaned between participants.

Examples: Basketball, volleyball*, baseball*, softball*, soccer, water polo, gymnastics* (if equipment can’t be sufficiently cleaned between competitors), ice hockey, field hockey, tennis*, swimming relays, pole vault*, high jump*, long jump*, girls lacrosse, crew with two or more rowers in shell, 7 on 7 football

*Could potentially be considered “Lower Risk” with appropriate cleaning of equipment and use of masks by participants

Lower Risk: Sports that can be done with social distancing or individually with no sharing of equipment or the ability to clean the equipment between use by competitors.

Examples: Individual running events, throwing events (javelin, shot put, discus), individual swimming, golf, weightlifting, alpine skiing, sideline cheer, single sculling, cross country running (with staggered starts)

             2. Transportation to events

Schools must consider social distancing requirements when scheduling contests and events for the fall. Social distancing (as required by state or local health department) will need to be maintained on buses/vans. Thus, multiple buses/vans and/or parental/guardian transportation will likely be needed.

             3. Social distancing during Contests/Events/Activities

                   a. Sidelines/benches

Appropriate social distancing will need to be maintained on sidelines/bench during contests and events. Consider using tape or paint as a guide for students and coaches.

                   b. Who should be allowed at events?

Group people into tiers from essential to non-essential and decide which tiers will be allowed at an event:

1. Tier 1 (Essential): Athletes, coaches, officials, event staff, medical staff, security

2. Tier 2 (Preferred): Media

3. Tier 3 (Non-essential): Spectators, vendors

Only Tier 1 and 2 personnel will be allowed to attend events until state/local health departments lift restrictions on mass gatherings. 10

       F. Athletic Training Services

Given the coming financial crisis at the state and local levels, the NFHS SMAC fears that athletic trainer positions will be seen as a “luxury” and those positions will be at risk during the budgeting process. It is also assumed that athletic trainers supplied to high schools by hospitals and sports medicine clinics are also at risk as many medical clinics and hospitals have suffered severe revenue loss during the pandemic.

Athletic trainers in high schools are positioned to play a vital role as sports return following this pandemic. As health-care professionals, they can take lead roles in developing and implementing infection control policy throughout the school. Whenever needed, state associations and their SMACs should promote the importance of athletic trainers in high schools and their role in injury evaluation, treatment and risk minimization as well as being a vital component of any return-to-school and athletics plan.

2. Return to Physical Activity

Current pre-season conditioning and acclimatization models assume that athletes have deconditioned over the summer months. The current pandemic may result in students being deconditioned for four to five months. The NFHS is currently involved with a number of other organizations in developing consensus guidelines for fall sports practices. These guidelines will be sent to state associations immediately after they are finalized and approved by all involved organizations.

3. Hygienic

       A. Illness reporting

Create notification process for all event athletes, coaches, event staff, media, spectators and vendors if the organizers/medical personnel learn of suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 at the event.

       B. Considerations for Officials, Coaches, Other Personnel

  1. Vulnerable individuals should not participate in any practices, conditioning activities, contests or events during Phases 1 and 2.
  2. Masks may be worn, social distancing enforced and “Hygiene Basics” adhered to in all situations.

C. Hygiene Basics

CONTINUE TO PRACTICE GOOD HYGIENE

  • Wash your hands with soap and water or use hand sanitizer, especially after touching frequently used items or surfaces.
  • Avoid touching your face.
  • Sneeze or cough into a tissue, or the inside of your elbow.
  • Disinfect frequently used items and surfaces as much as possible.
  • Strongly consider using face coverings while in public, and particularly when using mass transit.

PEOPLE WHO FEEL SICK SHOULD STAY HOME

  • Do not go to work or school.
  • Contact and follow the advice of your medical provider.

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

1. Wide availability of hand sanitizer at contests and practices. Participants, coaches and officials should clean hands frequently.

2. Wiping down ball and equipment frequently.

3. No pre-game and post-game handshakes/high-fives/fist bumps.

4. Officials and sideline volunteers should be given option to wear face coverings (may use artificial noisemaker in place of whistle).

References

“Opening up America Again.” The White House, www.whitehouse.gov/openingamerica/. Accessed: 5/6/2020.

“Protection Concept for Exit from the Corona-Lockwood and Resumption of Sports Activities.” Swiss Rugby Union.

www.suisserugby.com/fileadmin/content/Medical/Coronavirus/Suisserugby_Protection_Concept_EN_20200508.pdf, Version 1.0. Accessed: 4/29/2020.

“Recommendation Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community-Based Transmission.” Center for Disease Control and Prevention. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/cloth-face-cover.html. Accessed: 5/6/2020.

“Return to Training Considerations Post-COVID-19.” United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee – Sports Medicine, Version 0.12. www.teamusa.org/coronavirus. Accessed: 4/28/20.

Approved May 2020

DISCLAIMER – NFHS Position Statements and Guidelines

The NFHS regularly distributes position statements and guidelines to promote public awareness of certain health and safety-related issues. Such information is neither exhaustive nor necessarily applicable to all circumstances or individuals and is no substitute for consultation with appropriate health-care professionals. Statutes, codes or environmental conditions may be relevant. NFHS position statements or guidelines should be considered in conjunction with other pertinent materials when taking action or planning care. The NFHS reserves the right to rescind or modify any such document at any time. 12

APPENDIX I 

STATEMENT ON PPE AND ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION:

RAMIFICATIONS OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS)

Sports Medicine Advisory Committee (SMAC)

While the COVID-19 pandemic has presented myriad challenges to school athletic administrators, one area of increasing concern is the ability of students to access primary care providers and obtain the required preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) to participate in sports during the upcoming 2020-21 academic year. Currently, many primary care clinics are seeing patients for only acute illness and other urgent or emergent health issues. Well child care and PPEs have come to a halt in much of the country due to social distancing and “stay-at-home” policies.

The duration of the pandemic and social distancing restrictions are obviously unknown at this time. When primary care providers do start seeing patients for non-urgent conditions, there is likely to be a significant delay in routine care appointments as those providers prioritize patients with chronic or subacute medical problems. Thus, there will likely be significant delays in students being able to obtain PPEs in their medical home.

The purpose of the PPE or “sports physical” is to maximize the health of athletes and their safe participation in sports. The PPE is required for high school sports participation in every state and the District of Columbia. There is great variation in the required interval time between exams, ranging from annually to every three years.

We believe that this unprecedented event allows for state associations to be flexible in their current requirements, while maintaining a balance between student safety, the benefits of athletic participation, and easing the burden on local primary care providers. Therefore, we suggest that you consider the following:

1. Follow the laws for your state. We recommend discussion with state health department and state medical associations prior to making a final decision on how best to approach this issue. Some states may not be able to make any changes without approval of their state legislature.

2. If needed, and absent indications to the contrary, we recommend a one-year extension for any student who has a PPE that “expires” before or during the 2020-21 academic year.

3. Parents and guardians should be informed that extending the duration between PPEs is a deviation from standard of care, but given the already existing variation among states when there isn’t evidence to the contrary, we believe this change in practice on balance, would permit the greatest overall health benefit from the allocation of scarce medical resources.

4. Students who have not had a PPE, such as incoming freshmen and students who are first-time participants in athletics, should still be required to have a PPE prior to athletic participation.

Therefore, parents and guardians should be informed of the need to obtain a PPE now, in order to get this accomplished in the coming months.

5. We encourage allowing schools to accept documented PPEs from out-of-state transfer students. While there is variation among forms, there is not enough evidence that this variation significantly impacts the effectiveness of the PPE.

Approved April 2020

DISCLAIMER – NFHS Position Statements and Guidelines

The NFHS regularly distributes position statements and guidelines to promote public awareness of certain health and safety-related issues. Such information is neither exhaustive nor necessarily applicable to all circumstances or individuals and is no substitute for consultation with appropriate health-care professionals. Statutes, codes or environmental conditions may be relevant. NFHS position statements or guidelines should be considered in conjunction with other pertinent materials when taking action or planning care. The NFHS reserves the right to rescind or modify any such document at any time. 15

APPENDIX II